However, there were far steeper rates of decline on gains from the post-tests to delayed post-tests for the massed distribution group on both tests, indicating that gains made through spaced distribution instruction were more stable.
Though the spacing effect has been verified in second language vocabulary learning, few studies have investigated the possible application of spaced distribution practice to L2 grammar learning. They take far more trials to reach a predetermined learning criterion, but having learned something, their ability to retrieve it is comparable to healthy controls.
Though the post-tests showed statistically equal gains on all test types for both experimental groups, the delayed post-test results showed the spaced distribution group outperformed the massed distribution group on one test type error analysis and correction. In this method, cards are sorted into separate boxes based on how well you know the material on that card.
Douglas Fields in Scientific American in Memories that were poorly consolidated through inefficient means of practice will be harder to recall, and will reduce the learning achieved through expanding retrieval. This shows that the effects of practice can be essentially removed through reduction in working memory ability Rhinal cortex[ edit ] The rhinal cortex is an area of the brain surrounding the hippocampus.
This leads to an elaboration of the first memory trace. However, no spacing effect was found when the target words were shallowly encoded using a graphemic study task. In most groups, you have some more advanced students and some who take longer to learn something.
Study-phase retrieval[ edit ] The study-phase retrieval theory has gained a lot of traction recently. There is a concern about overtraining when doing two workouts per day. If the encoding variability theory were true, then different orienting tasks ought to provide variable encoding, even for massed repetitions, resulting in a higher rate of recall for massed repetitions than would be expected.
Pimsleur method[ edit ] The Pimsleur method, or Pimsleur language learning system is a language acquisition system developed by Paul Pimsleur which is sold commercially.
This effect is most notable when dealing with semantic knowledge, but is also applicable to the acquisition of general skills. For example, he displayed improvement in the Block-Tapping Memory-Span testbut only to a maximum of 5 blocks,  implying his ability to improve through practice continued to exist, but that it does not supersede damage to other aspects of long-term memory formation that he suffered after his surgery.
Hence, nonsense items with massed presentation receive less extensive perceptual processing than spaced items; thus, the retrieval of those items is impaired in cued-memory tasks. This seems like a strange result and Shaughnessy interprets it as evidence for a multi-factorial account of the spacing effect.
Distributed practice exists to a limited degree in animals after the removal of the hippocampus, if the Rhinal cortices are un-damaged.
Implications with nonsense stimuli[ edit ] From this explanation of the spacing effect, it follows that this effect should not occur with nonsense stimuli that do not have a semantic representation in memory.Spaced retrieval practice- trying to recover long-term memories quickly and accurately- is the subject of a different line of research but also shows that spaced practice (for example, taking a practice test every month) is more effective that massed practice.
Massed practice is the learning pattern where information that has been learned is reviewed over large chunks of time that are spaced very far apart. It is most often equated to the concept of. Spaced vs. Massed Practice. Massed Practice refers to conditions in which individuals practice a task continuously without rest.
Spaced Practice refers to conditions in which individuals are given rest intervals within the practice sessions. Spaced Practice Versus Massed Practice One common educational finding is that spaced practice is more effective than massed practice.
In other words, it is more effective to learn something by learning it during 6 different sessions for 10 minutes each than to try to learn it in a single one hour session. Research Question 1 addresses the immediate impact of spaced vs. massed distribution instruction.
Research Question 2 addresses the slightly longer-term effects of spaced distribution instruction in comparison with massed distribution instruction, as examined by a comparison of pre- and delayed post-tests, and will give a better idea of how.
Distributed practice (also known as spaced repetition or spaced practice) is a learning strategy, where practice is broken up into a number of short sessions – over a longer period of time.Download